The positive sentence
Watashi wa yomimasu (I read) polite form
Kare wa tabemasu (He eats) polite form
Watashi wa yomu (I read) colloquial form
Kare wa taberu (He eats) colloquial form
Watashi wa hon o yomimasu – I read a book
Kare wa sakana o tabemasu – He eats fish
Watashi wa hon o yomu – I read a book
Kare wa sakana o taberu – He eats fish
Kanojo wa nihonjin desu – She is Japanese
Are wa gakkō da – That is a school
Subject+wa+place+ni / he+Verbo iku (to go) / kuru (to come)
Kanojo wa Kyoto ni / he ikimasu – She goes to Kyoto
Karera wa eki ni / he kimasu – They come to the station
Kanojo wa Kyoto ni / he iku – She goes to Kyoto
Karera wa eki ni / he kuru – They come to the station
Watashi wa yomimasen – I don’t read
Kare wa tabemasen – He doesn’t eat
Watashi wa yomanai – I don’t read
Kare wa tabenai – He doesn’t eat
Watashi wa hon o yomimasen – I don’t read books
Kare wa sakana o tabemasen – He doesn’t eat fish
Watashi wa hon o yomanai – I don’t read books
Kare wa sakana o tabenai – He doesn’t eat fish
Subject+wa+to be (negative)
Watashi wa nihonjin dewa arimasen – I am not Japanese
Are wa gakkō dewa nai – That is not a school
Subject+wa+place+ni / he+verb iku (to go) / kuru – to come
Kanojo wa Kyoto ni / he ikimasen – She doesn’t go to Kyoto
Karera wa eki ni / he kimasen – They don’t come to the station
Kanojo wa Kyoto ni / he ikanai – She doesn’t go to Kyoto
Karera wa eki ni/he konai – They don’t come to the station
Questions are formed by adding ka at the end of the polite form.
Anata wa gakusei desu – You are a student
Anata wa gakusei desuka – Are you a student?
Kare wa zasshi o yomimasu – He reads magazines
Kare wa zasshi o yomimasuka – Does he read magazines?
There are also interrogative pronouns:
donata (formal) / dare (colloquial) – who
nan – what
dore – which
ikutsu – how much
donoyōni – how (in what way)
doko – where
itsu – when
ikura – how much (cost)
dō – how
These pronouns come before the verb:
Ano hito wa donata desuka – Who is that person?
Yamadasan desu – It’s mr / ms Yamada
* It is important to add san after the name or surname to be polite.
Are wa nan desuka – What is that?
Are wa gakkō desu – That is a school
Nihongo no hon wa dore desuka? – Which one is the Japanese book?
Kore desu – It’s this one
Mikan wa ikutsu arimasuka? – How many mandarins are there?
Nanatsu desu – There are seven
Donoyōni asobimasuka – How do you play?
Futari de asobimasu – You play in two people